Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan the 1st caliph of the Umayyad dynasty (661-750 AD) moved the capital of the Muslim Empire from Medina north towards Damascus. From Damascus, the Muslim empire expanded tremendously. The Umayyads gave the world a number of architectural legacies including the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Great Mosque in Damascus.
In the Jordanian desert the Umayyads built pavilions, caravan stations, secluded baths and hunting lodges known as Desert Castles. Filled with mosaic pavements, fresco paintings, carved stucco depicting people, animals, events and patterns; Desert Castles stand as monuments to the spectacular and original early Islamic art.
On a hilltop, not far from Jerash, you can visit the shrine of Prophet Hud . Here is a modern mosque with a cave inside where Prophet Hud is believed buried. He preached to the people of Ad to only worship the One God instead of their idols. Prophet Hud has the 11th Sura in the Holy Qur'an named after him.
Known in Arabic as Fahl, Pella was the site of the famous Battle of Fahl, fought between Byzantines and the Muslim army led by Khalid ibn Al-Walid and Abu Ubeida Amer ibn Al-Jarrah in January 635 AD. The outcome was a Muslim victory and liberation of Jordan from Byzantine rule.